They have two choices: (1) be born with the ability, or (2) read Switzerland Phone Number List Max Atkinsons books and learn.’ Audience applauds. The ‘clap traps’ In his books Our Masters’ Voices (1984) and Lend Me Your Ears (2004, aff.), Atkinson describes 7 techniques for applause. He calls them Claptraps, although you might better call them sound bites, as suggested by Simon Switzerland Phone Number List Lancaster (2010). They make it clear to the audience that something important is about to be said. That is why we often see the corresponding statements in the headlines the Online Audience Is Actively other day. It concerns contrasts (4 kinds), riddles (2 kinds) and sets of three. Many of these rhetorical techniques were already known to the ancient Greeks.
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According to Atkinson, they are responsible for about 75% of all Switzerland Phone Number List applause in speeches. His research results have been enriched. Refined and sharpened over the years by studies by Heritage & Greatbatch (1986) and Bull & Wells (2002) among others. More on that later. First the clap traps . Here they come. Also read: Does your content have Martin Luther Switzerland Phone Number List King quality? 1. Contrasts We’ll start with the most popular technique, the contrast. Atkinson distinguishes 4 types: Contradictions Equations Contradictions Sentence inversions Contradictions: ‘not this, but that’ The contradiction has a long history. Shakespeare was also a lover. From ‘To be or not to be’ from Hamlet, to ‘I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him’ from Julius Caesar. Here is a famous example from Nelson Mandela’s speech at the Grand Parade (1990).
I stand here before you, not as a prophet, but as a humble Switzerland Phone Number List servant of you, the people. Comparisons: ‘more this than that’ The second type of contrasts are equations. Instead of stating that one is not what the other is, you can of course also say that something is better or faster. An example from the corona speech of the British Queen Elizabeth II (2020): ‘We should Switzerland Phone Number List take comfort that while we may have more to endure , better days will return.’ She then continues with another technique: a row of three, about which more later. ‘ We will be with our friends again, we will be with our families again, we will meet again.’ (in the video below from minute 04:00) Note that each element of the enumeration starts in the same way.